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浅谈顶管工程造价的编制与审核
  发布者:admin 发布时间:2009-5-11 22:33:27 阅读:12473

浅谈顶管工程造价的编制与审核

浅谈顶管工程造价的编制与审核
管道在穿越铁路、高速公路、河流、建筑物等障碍物,或在城市公路主要干道路面下铺设时,常采用的一种特殊施工方法,即不开槽施工,这种施工方法称为顶管施工。它是一项新的管道施工技术,主要特点是:在不拆除或少拆除地面障碍物,不中断地面交通;在穿越河流时既不影响正常通航,也不需要修建围堰或进行水下作业。

    顶管施工常用的方法有:人工、机械或水力掘进顶管,或不出土的挤压土层顶管。近几年,随着施工技术的不断进步和发展,出现了许多针对不同现场情况而创立的新方法,如导向钻进铺管法,混凝土方(拱)管涵顶进等方法。采用何种方法,则要根据管径大小、土层性质、管线长度及其它因素来决定。

    作为预算人员,在编制或审核顶管工程预(结)算报告时,怎样才能使自己编制或审核的预(结)算造价更确切更合理呢?通常施工图或竣工图对于有顶管的项目标注都十分简单,一般标注:“某路段顶管长多少米,管材为……”,这就要求我们预算人员要了解熟悉各种顶管施工方法的适用条件,再根据定额套用合适的子目,只有这样才能编制出合理的工程造价。

    某水厂在进行出水管铺设时,就遇到了另外两条特大水管横在前面,阻挡前进方向。由于是两根管径分别为3.2米和2.8米的钢筋混凝土管,用正常的挖管沟敷设方法根本不可行,经反复研究最后决定降低标高用顶管方式穿越前面阻挡。由于顶管管径大,顶进距离比较短,因此,采用有人工、机械或水力掘进顶管方法比较合适。此时,作预算人中,就要根据这种方法的工作内容来编制预算报告。

    首先是工作坑土方量的计算。通常坑宽W=D+2B+2b(B为工作面,b为侧壁支撑立木),坑深可根据设计高度、基础厚度、顶管设备高度(导轨至管中心高度)而定,长度一般按3米计算,若后背尺寸加厚,则相应加大长度尺寸,这样土方量就计算出来了。回收坑也用同样方法计算工程量。其次,就是工作坑垫层和基础的计量。由于现场土质很差,所以选用了碎石垫层后再铺筑钢筋混凝土基础,根据坑的尺寸,可计算出相应子目的工程量。三是,后背墙。由于现场土质松散,利用天然地层作为后座墙不可行,所以只能考虑现浇一个钢筋混凝土后背墙,尺寸为0.5米厚,3.5米宽,5米高。计算出相应子目工程量,套定额就可以了。

至于沉井,由于其施工工序如下:施工准备→

 
 

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